Some say that, rather than packing the voters of their party into uncompetitive districts, party leaders tend to prefer to spread their party's voters into multiple districts, so that their party can win a larger number of races. Nevertheless, the -mander suffix has been applied to particular malapportionments. When the parties win district elections in rough proportion to their electoral popularity, the efficiency gap is near zero. Mann, a Senior Fellow of Governance Studies at the Brookings Institution , has also noted that "Redistricting is a deeply political process, with incumbents actively seeking to minimize the risk to themselves via bipartisan gerrymanders or to gain additional seats for their party via partisan gerrymanders ". According to the Oxford English Dictionary , the word's acceptance was marked by its publication in a dictionary and in an encyclopedia
Mann, a Senior Fellow of Governance Studies at the Brookings Institution , has also noted that "Redistricting is a deeply political process, with incumbents actively seeking to minimize the risk to themselves via bipartisan gerrymanders or to gain additional seats for their party via partisan gerrymanders ". You may improve this article , discuss the issue on the talk page , or create a new article , as appropriate. It was redrawn in They have an obvious and immediate interest in the outcome of the process. Although in the election both the Massachusetts House and governorship were won by Federalists by a comfortable margin and cost Gerry his job, the redistricted state senate remained firmly in Democratic-Republican hands. Tom DeLay , a Republican. As a further constraint, consensus requirements can be imposed to ensure that the resulting district map reflects a wider perception of fairness, such as a requirement for a supermajority approval of the commission for any district proposal. Some countries, such as Australia, Canada , and the UK, authorize non-partisan organizations to set constituency boundaries in an attempt to prevent gerrymandering. This can be controversial, as it may lead to those groups' remaining marginalised in the government as they become confined to a single district. In Spain, they are constitutionally fixed since To help ensure neutrality, members of a redistricting agency may be appointed from relatively apolitical sources such as retired judges or longstanding members of the civil service, possibly with requirements for adequate representation among competing political parties. Effects[ edit ] Gerrymandering is effective because of the wasted vote effect. In these, just two parties effectively compete in the national elections and thus the national political discussions are forced into a narrow two-party frame, where loyalty and forced statements inside the two parties distort the political debate. The district has predominantly African-American residents who vote for Democrats. June Learn how and when to remove this template message North Carolina's 12th congressional district between and was an example of packing. This demonstrates that gerrymandering can have a deleterious effect on the principle of democratic accountability. Aside from satisfying federally mandated contiguity and population equality criteria, the LSB mandates unity of counties and cities. Texas' controversial partisan gerrymander produced Texas District 22 for former Rep. Using fixed districts[ edit ] Another way to avoid gerrymandering is simply to stop redistricting altogether and use existing political boundaries such as state, county, or provincial lines. The caricature satirizes the bizarre shape of a district in Essex County, Massachusetts , as a dragon-like "monster". Examples of gerrymandered districts[ edit ] This article has multiple issues. This section needs additional citations for verification. When the party controlling the districting process has a statewide majority, packing is usually not necessary to attain partisan advantage; the minority party can generally be "cracked" everywhere. This cartoon was most likely drawn by Elkanah Tisdale , an early 19th-century painter, designer, and engraver who was living in Boston at the time. Gerrymandering may be advocated to improve representation within the legislature among otherwise underrepresented minority groups by packing them into a single district. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.
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